Tim Harford writes The Problem With Factswhich uses Brexit and Trump as jumping-off points to argue that people are mostly impervious to facts and resistant to logic: Facts, it seems, are toothless.
To be honest, I had kind of forgotten that the Universe was allowed to contain negative consequences for legalizing drugs. Not to try to convince my attending of anything — as the old saying goes, do not meddle in the affairs of Persuasive essay on banning smoking in public places, because you are crunchy and taste good with ketchup — but just to figure out where exactly things stand.
Starting in the s, several states decriminalized possession of marijuana — that is, possession could not be penalized by jail time. It could still be penalized by fines and other smaller penalties, and manufacture and sale could still be punished by jail time. Starting in the s, several states legalized medical marijuana.
People with medical marijuana cards, which in many cases were laughably easy to get with or without good evidence of disease, were allowed to grow and use marijuana, despite concerns that some of this would end up on the illegal market. Starting last week, Colorado legalized recreational use of marijuana, as well as cultivation and sale subject to heavy regulations.
Washington will follow later this year, and other states will be placing measures on their ballots to do the same.
One should be able to evaluate to what degree marijuana use rose after these policy changes, and indeed, many people have tried — with greater or lesser levels of statistical sophistication.
The worst arguments in favor of this proposition are those like this CADCA paperwhich note that states with more liberal marijuana laws have higher rates of marijuana use among teenagers than states that do not. The proper counterspell to such nonsense is Reverse Causal Arrows — could it not be that states with more marijuana users are more likely to pass proposals liberalizing marijuana laws?
The states involved are places like Colorado, California, Washington, and Oregon. I think that speaks for itself.
A slightly more sophisticated version — used by the DEA here — takes the teenage marijuana use in a state one year before legalization of medical marijuana and compares it to the teenage marijuana use in a state one or several years after such legalization.
They often find that it has increased, and blame the increase on the new laws. This falls victim to a different confounder — marijuana use has undergone some very large swings nationwide, so the rate of increase in medical marijuana states may be the same as the rate anywhere else.
Indeed, this is what was going on in California — its marijuana use actually rose slightly less than the national average. What we want is a study that compares the average marijuana use in a set of states before liberalization to the average marijuana use in the country as a whole, and then does the same after liberalization to see if the ratio has increased.
They survey thousand of high school seniors on marijuana use in seven states that decriminalize marijuana both before and for five years after the decriminalization, and find absolutely no sign of increased marijuana use in fact, there is a negative trend.
There is only a hint of some different results. Overall I think the evidence is pretty strong that decriminalization probably led to no increase in marijuana use among teens, and may at most have led to a small single-digit increase. In practice, decriminalization does not affect the average user very much — even in states without decriminalization, marijuana possession very rarely leads to jail time.
The next major milestone in cannabis history was the legalization of medical marijuana.
Other studies find pretty much the same. Indeed, for about ten years after medical marijuana legalization, the federal government kept on prosecuting marijuana users even when their use accorded with state laws, and many states had so few dispensaries that in reality not a whole lot of medical marijuana was being given out.
When we examined decriminalization, we found that the studies based on surveys of teens looked pretty good, but that the one study that examined outcomes — marijuana-related ER visits — was a lot less encouraging.
I have two theories. First, maybe medical marijuana use and decriminalization increase use among adults only. Second, we know that medical marijuana has twice as much THC as street marijuana.
Or the studies are wrong. Studies being wrong is always a pretty good bet. Nearly everyone who teaches in Colorado says there has been an explosion of marijuana-related problems since medical marijuana was legalized. Meanwhile, the actual surveys of Colorado high school students say that marijuana use, if anything, is going down.
A Colorado drug warrior has some strong objections to the survey results, but they center around not really being able to prove that there is a real downward trend which is an entirely correct complaint without denying that in fact they show no evidence at all of going up.
The consensus on medical marijuana seems to be that it does not increase teen marijuana use either, although there is some murky and suggestive evidence that it might increase illicit or dangerous marijuana use among adults. There is less information on the effects of full legalization of marijuana, which has never been tried before in the United States.
To make even wild guesses we will have to look at a few foreign countries plus some econometric simulations. No one will be surprised to hear that the first foreign country involved is the Netherlands, which was famously permissive of cannabis up until a crackdown a few years ago.
Despite popular belief they never fully legalized the drug and they were still pretty harsh on production and manufacture; distribution, on the other hand, could occur semi-openly in coffee shops.
This is true even among teenagers, and covers both heavy use as well as occasional experimentation. The second foreign country involved is Portugal, which was maybe more of a decriminalization than a legalization case but which is forever linked with the idea of lax drug regimes in the minds of most Americans.
They decriminalized all drugs including heroin and cocaine inchoosing to replace punishment with increased treatment opportunities, and as we all have been toldno one in Portugal ever used drugs ever again, or even remembers that drugs exist.
There are many more people receiving drug treatment, but that might just be because Portugal upped its drug treatment game in a separate law at the same time they decriminalized drugs.
Finally, we let the economists have their say. Conclusion for this section:Why Smoking Should Be Banned. Why Smoking should be banned in Public Places It is a touchy subject among young and old alike; whether or not people should be allowed to smoke in public places.
That is a burning question that many people will disagree on. One of the persuasive papers that you may face during your studies is smoking should be banned in public places essay. If you really think this way and you are sure that smoking is something that should not be allowed in public places, it won't be very difficult to cope with this kind of writing assignment.
The Need to Ban Smoking in Public Places: A Persuasive Essay Words | 3 Pages. or not to ban smoking in public places has been ongoing for quite a long period of time.
An argumentative speech is a persuasive speech in which the speaker attempts to persuade his audience to alter their viewpoints on a controversial issue. While a persuasive speech may be aimed more at sharing a viewpoint and asking the audience to consider it, an argumentative speech aims to radically change the opinions already .
Looks like I get the first post again. Hope no one thinks I’m working some dark magic. Just a product of having no life I’m afraid. Having read Nathan Robinson’s article previously, I came to the conclusion that it was saying “You can’t argue against white supremacists”.
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