A growing need to have ubiquitous connectivity has motivated our research to provide continuous connection between various wireless platforms such as cellular networks, WLANs and MANETs. We provide simulation results that demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed integrated routing protocols and show the advantages and drawbacks of each gateway discovery approach in different heterogeneous scenarios. In this paper, we focus on integrated solutions for cellular networks, WLANs and MANETs, and we address the problem of discovering and establishing end-to-end routes across these networks, without taking into account AAA and security issues. Although the issues practically span all layers from the physical to the This work has been partially supported by the Ohio Board of Regents, Doctoral Enhancement Funds.
The most common and approachable places, such as airports, hotels, shopping places, university campuses and homes have been provided with WLAN Access Points AP which provide hotspot connectivity. The future advances in modern radios like Software-Defined Radio SDR and cognitive radio technologies will surely facilitate the need of multi-mode, multi-interface and multi-band communication devices.
This heterogeneous networking paradigm will certainly enable a user to enjoy better service quality, ease of use and mobility, while keeping in view the application needs and types of available access networks e.
The autonomous nature of participating mobile nodes enables MANETs to have dynamic and frequently changing network topology.
The nodes are self-organizing and behave as routers. The ease and speed of deployment and decreased dependence on infrastructure have made ad hoc networks popular within very short span of time. MANET's rapid deployment, ease of use and subsequent properties make them a hot choice for many important applications.
These include both technical and information resources.
Technical resources like bandwidth, Quality of Service QoScomputational power, storage capacity and information resources include any kind of data from databases.
Resource sharing among mobile devices require the devices to agree on communication protocols without the existence of any dedicated servers. Examples of such mechanisms are Samba, Network File System NFS for sharing disk space and the distributed dot net client for sharing processor cycles.
The level of trust depends on the kind of information or resources that is to be shared. For instance, sharing processor cycles require less trust than the sharing of personal information.
Similarly, sharing of profit-making or highly sensitive information can require another level of trust establishment.
There are systems currently in operation that can provide a certain amount of trust like the public key infrastructure that makes use of certificates. When a node enters the network, it has to be capable of communicating to the other nodes about its capabilities e.
When a node is detected, other users can send a query to the new device to find out what it has to offer. Commercial service providers can advertise the resources they have to offer through Internet Protocol IP multicasts. There are also various different systems currently available that can gather these resource descriptions and structure them for other devices to use.
If, for instance, storage capacity is to be shared, it first has to be clear what the capacity of each device is, and, what the storage need is. Although there are techniques to describe certain resources but not one technique that is able to provide this service for all resources.
The available techniques combined, however, cover most of what is needed. Mobility rate may also differ in ad hoc networks due to varying traffic characteristics, transmission ranges, reliability requirements and communication needs. Similarly, addressing and traffic flows like host-based addressing, content-based addressing or capability-based addressing patterns may be defined in certain scenarios; for example, people sitting at an airport lounge, metro taxi cabs, sportsmen playing and military movements etc Homogenous MANETs do not allow for the heterogeneity in the network, which is seriously required in many scenarios, for instance, in a military battlefield network, where soldiers usually carry light portable wireless devices and more powerful equipment like High Frequency HF or Very High Frequency VHF is installed on vehicles.
This exhibits many possible application scenarios where devices may unexpectedly interact, create and receive random data streams video and music etcor request different network services.
The drawback is that each network type typically uses its own protocol stack especially in the case of medium access. In fact, frequency allocation becomes more complicated since different wireless technologies like IEEE However, this mechanism makes it difficult to remember destinations by IP addresses.
So, there must be some mechanism similar to domain name service to recognize mobile nodes with more logical and easy to remember names. Security mechanisms must take care of end-to-end data security as well as route security . For example, there may be some nodes installed with location monitoring devices like GPS.
Now it is the responsibility of routing protocol to benefit from such capabilities in order to facilitate location aided routing and similar services . Comprehensive research efforts have been done to address the issues related to infrastructure-less multihop communications among nodes installed with dissimilar communication capabilities [3, 11, 12, 13].
However, an investigation needs to be made in order to analyze and address the issues arising from such integrations. Such problems relate to both end user's convenience For example, remembering each destination with its IP address is a cumbersome job specially when every destination may carry multiple IP addresses and any communication interface may optionally be connected or disconnected as well as network's performance; for example, routing to the best possible interface when there are multiple interfaces installed at destination.
Likewise, optimized neighborhood sensing and position based routing can help to improve heterogeneous ad hoc network's performance and scalability. Performance improvement issues relating to network configuration, human understandable naming mechanism and sophisticated location aided routing mechanisms will also be discussed and evaluated on an actual ad hoc network testbed.
Chapter 3 includes an overview of famous heterogeneous routing protocols architectures, interworking issues encountered, the limitation and solution suggested.
Chapter 4 specifically discusses the adopted solution.comparative analysis a set of IEEE WLANs standards family used for MANETs (i.e IEEE , , , and ). PAN. luetooth is wireless LAN technology design to connect Distribution and Integration.[3,8] Global Journal of Computer Science and Technology.
When a node enters the network, it has to be capable of communicating to the other nodes about its capabilities e.g. it is a Personal Digital Assistant (PDA) and it has a camera, Global Positioning System (GPS) capabilities and Global System for Mobile Communication (GSM) capabilities etc.
The popularity of wireless communication systems can be seen almost everywhere in the form of cellular networks, WLANs, and WPANs. In addition, small portable devices have been increasingly equipped with multiple communication interfaces building a heterogeneous environment in terms of .
Integration of WLANS, PAN, LAN and GSM in Hmanets. The objective of this thesis is to study the integration of different technologies like WPAN, WLAN and GSM . operation mode. Hence, MANETs and WLANs/WPANs operating in single-hop mode need to be differentiated in the design of inte-grating solutions.
The Third Generation Partnership Project (3GPP) has been developing an interworking architecture for 3G cellular systems and WLANs with the aim of enhancing the services provided to subscribers by 3G operators.
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