New York The difficulty in the transportation of goods from Old Northwest to the East Coast lead to the construction of the Erie canal which seemed impossible but is completed successfully and impacted America in many ways. The search for efficient routes through the Appalachian Mountains gives birth to the idea of the Erie Canal. As a result many farmers traveled west over the Appalachian Mountains where there was plenty of rich farmland in the Old Northwest for them to cultivate Benson, Brannen, and Valentine The only water way for transportation was the Mohawk River which still did not get travelers and goods entirely to the East Coast.
Many writers still treat opium smoking by Chinese as a moral and even ethnic issue, as if Chinese were somehow more guilty than other people of addiction to opiate drugs. Chinese-American historians have tended to shy away from the subject entirely. Do they feel that it somehow reflects badly on their culture or themselves?
Must one keep quiet about one's predecessors' vices, in spite of the horrifying damage that was sometimes caused, in order to validate one's cultural inheritance?
We don't think so. Opium use among Chinese immigrants was very widespread, economically important, and -- until -- perfectly legal in most parts of the United States and Canada.
The smugglers of opium, most of whom were European-Americans, were criminals, though tolerated and even respected in the Pacific Northwest. Smokers of opium, the majority of whom in those days were Chinese, may have been addicts but were neither criminals nor outcasts.
Opium made hard lives more bearable and, perhaps due to easy availability and modest prices, seems not to have caused nearly as much violent crime as alcohol did then or as opioid drugs like heroin and oxycontin do nowadays. So we propose to discuss opium use among North American Chinese frankly and straightforwardly.
We feel that there is no shame in what happened a hundred years ago and that there are lessons in it for the modern world. While many American and Canadian Chinese of the late s may have been addicts, their cultural systems kept the drug under control in spite of that. We in the early s should learn to do the same.
Beecher, the newly appointed and unusually bribe-resistant Collector of the U.
Customs office at Port Townsend, pulls off a coup. Learning that steamers on the Washington-Alaska route often loaded illicit opium at Victoria on the way north and then brought it back south labeled as a staple commodity, he posts a pair of trusted men as spies in Victoria.
In November they send word to Beecher that the steamship Idaho has loaded fourteen suspicious barrels marked "Ships Stores" at Victoria and proceeded north.
When the Idaho reappears, it is searched rigorously. Only pounds of opium are found, hidden in a washstand.
What has happened to the rest? Luckily, Beecher's informants learn that most of it has been offloaded at Kassan Bay Fish Saltery at the south end of Alaska.
There he discovers the fourteen barrels, labeled "Salted Fish" but filled with smoking opium of the best quality. This provided the same kind of incentive and potential for abuse as modern rules allowing police departments to keep vehicles used for transporting illegal narcotics.
In Beecher's case, he may have been exaggerating the amount he got from reselling the half-pounds of opium. Customs office in Ogdensburg, NY. Gardner apparently gets out of this by claiming that it was part of his official duties but is then arrested again, for arranging the smuggling of another pounds of opium from Canada to Tacoma on the steamer George Starr.The Spanish Inquisition - The Spanish Inquisition was the longest and most ruthless inquiry of faith of all time.
Jews, Muslims, Hindus, Christians, and all non-Catholic religions were besieged by persecution from the Spanish government. Epstein's essays have appeared in venues as diverse as the Atlantic Monthly and Commentary; his books include short story and essay collections, a brief life of Alex de Tocqueville, and popular treatises on snobbery, friendship, and envy.
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Any opinions, findings, conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of UK Essays. Free spanish papers, essays, and research papers. Anarchist Barcelona: The Spanish Civil War - “What so few of us knew outside of Spain, however, was that the ‘Spanish Civil War’ was in fact a sweeping social revolution by millions of workers and peasants to reconstruct Spanish society along revolutionary lines” (Dolgoff xii).
Sep 02, · In , at the height of its success, Russell employed 7, of the town’s 15, residents. But the company soon faced competitors that undercut its prices.
In a Cardboard Belt!: Essays Personal, Literary, and Savage [Joseph Epstein] on benjaminpohle.com *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers. Joseph Epstein has been called America’s “liveliest, most erudite and engaging essayist” (James Atlas).