Additional Information In lieu of an abstract, here is a brief excerpt of the content: Bennett to james Weldon johnson, 4 januaryjWj. For an extended biography, see Sandra Govan, "Gwendolyn Bennett: Portrait of an Artist Lost," dissertation, Emory University,
Some cultures that were once matrilineally based, have developed into patrilineal structures over time due to changes in community structure, agricultural status, or exposure to other cultures.
The Hehe people of Tasmania, once matrilineal, transformed to a patrilineal structure after the introduction of cattle raising to their formerly solely farming society. An article published online by the Royal Society further confirms that many formerly matrilineal peoples developed patrilineal social structures after the introduction of cattle Holde.
A wooden throne carved for the Hehe chief includes a backrest in the form of a female head and torso. One might speculate, as do Sieber and Walker, that the feminine features may be a tribute to female beauty or in praise of women's role in the community Or, the female body in the form of a chair might express more pejorative views of women's roles of service to men or be a commentary about men's power over women.
Regardless of whether the culture reveres and respects womanhood and women hold important social roles or if women merely play supporting roles or, worse, are considered nothing more than a means of reproduction and the property of the male members of the society, women and imagery of the feminine are ubiquitous in Sub-Saharan African art and culture.
Birth It seems appropriate to begin with birth, but that is a very Western notion.
For the peoples of Sub- Saharan Africa, time and the stages of life are rather more cyclical than linear. The spirits of those who have died and become ancestors are considered to play an active role in the life of the community.
Among their duties are the reproductive health and fertility of women, the guarding of family affairs, and the proper upbringing of children Sieber, Birth is followed by childhood then coming-of-age rituals which are followed by marriage, children, adult participation in the community, elderhood, death, the afterlife, and, back to birth again.
Coming of Age Coming-of-age rites of passage are very important in the lives of peoples across Sub-Saharan Africa. Equally important are the men's and women's associations that sponsor the education and rituals involved in the initiation into adulthood.
It is, also, these social groups that the initiates will enter upon their reintroduction into society as adults. Many masks, costumes, headdresses, and statuary play a role in the rituals and education involved in the transformation from child to adult. Depiction of scarification and representations of nose ornaments and the, pelele, circular wooden lip disks, mirror the physical adornment worn by young Makonde wives Sieber, This association is responsible for the education and socialization of young girls.
According to Sieber and Walker, most Sub-Saharan African societies limit the making and wearing of masks to the male members of the group.
An exception to this rule appears in Sande coming-of-age rituals where the men still carve the masks, but the women are allowed to wear them during initiation rituals Important female ancestors, sometimes join their male counterparts by being memorialized in stone or wood or metal sculpture.
The Benin of Nigeria construct elaborate metal sculpture, such as the commemorative portrait head of Oba Esigie's queen mother, Idia. They, along with male figurines, are often amongst the gear of the spiritual leaders, diviners, and witch doctors. They are used for many purposes, with reproductive health, fertility, and ease of childbirth being primary.
Female and male forms, sometimes representing the primordial couple, the essential feminine and masculine powers. Sometimes, they adorn altars in tribute to deities, or they can be found guarding shrines Seiber, Feminine imagery on masks and statuary are, also, used by members of tribal men's and women's associations.
Female figurines are sometimes used by male associations, but they likely symbolize female deity or the essential feminine powers of nature, like those used by the Montol peoples of Nigeria Sieber, While Lilwa is considered a male association, it is open to the daughters of high ranking members of society.
They are initiated into the lowest level along with young men entering the initiation. In addition, wives of high ranking members can, because of talents and abilities, be elected into the highest offices of the Lilwa association. The Mbole carved wood male and female figurines portraying persons who were executed by hanging as punishment for transgressing moral and legal laws.
These figures, Ofika, were displayed on solemn occasions, conflict mediation, and times of continued poor hunting Sieber, In truth, only the wives of highly ranked members join the males in the Bwami association Sieber, Bwami, like Mbole, and similar associations play the role of political power because many peoples of Zaire are ancephalous societies, meaning they do not have chiefs.
They, also, however, act as arts clubs. Most art in the form of masks, statues, metalwork, pottery and carving, is made by the male members of Sub-Saharan African societies, but there are exceptions.
The Igbo peoples of Nigeria have female potters who create beautiful and intricate statuary, including altarpieces like that for the shrine of Ifejiouku, the god of farming.
They give an example of the Lega people, for whom, most deaths are attributable to sorcery and most practitioners to sorcery are women. Unfortunately, this seems to be a commonly held belief by Sub-Saharan African cultures.
On the other hand, women play an important role in many funereal rites and are often memorialized in the masks and figures used in this last rite of passage.
These are Senufo that were initiated into adult society, contributed to the community, and had many children and grandchildren. The more important the person, the more elaborate the ceremony. The feminine masks are meant to symbolize that which is beautiful and sport tapering shapes at each side of the mask that represent both the hornbill and the hairstyle worn by Senufo mothers Sieber, skarlet the vampire trinity 1 thomas emson gradle in action ebook benjamin muschko nctb class nine ten math solution guide vile faces of evil 8 debra webb.
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