Long dismissed as an indirect—even negligible—factor in child mortality, acute malnutrition is now indicted for its insidious and indeed major role in eight of the eleven million child deaths that occur worldwide on an annual basis ScienceDaily, The prevalence of severe malnutrition in Haiti has most recently been reported as 2. Moderate malnutrition has a much higher prevalence than severe malnutrition and is responsible for a far greater number of child deaths annually; indeed, children with moderate malnutrition are up to 12 times more likely to succumb to preventable disease e.
About this Typology About this Typology This typology breaks down the traditional boundaries between the nonprofit and private sectors and draws definition to this new institutional animal--part business-part social--the social enterprise.
In doing so, the typology explores how institutions have combined a mix of social values and goals with commercial business practices and how they have come up with ownership models, income and capitalization strategies, and unique management and service systems designed to maximize social value.
The illustrative typology classifies different models of social enterprise in order to navigate readers through the currently ill-defined, diverse and dynamic landscape of this emerging field.
This typology is an outgrowth of a paper commissioned by the Inter-American Development Bank in entitled: The typology is a work in progress, and will be updated with new models, examples, and case studies.
We invite you to send us your comments and examples of your social enterprises that we can include here. Attribution should be made by providing a link to http: The Author The Author Kim Alter has endeavored to bring business practices to nonprofit organizations and international development agencies, encouraging their sustainability through earned income, in more than 30 countries worldwide for over a dozen years.
She is founder and Principal of Virtue Venturesa management consulting firm specializing in social enterprise. Web and document designs are by Vincent Dawans from Virtue Ventures.
Kim and Vincent can be contacted via the online contact form. Document Structure Document Structure The typology is organized in five main sections that can be read in any order based on the reader's interest and familiarity with the subject.
The second section puts the social enterprise field in context. It starts by organizing practitioners on a spectrum by their philanthropic versus their commercial orientation.
The third section presents several ways of classifying social enterprises, either based on their mission orientationbased on the level of integration between social programs and business activitiesor based on the nature of their target market.
The fourth section presents several common social enterprise operational models grouped into three main structural categories which cover a wide range of interplay between several variables, such as clients, market, social service programs, mission orientation, financial objectives, etc.
Finally, the fifth section examines social enterprise structures as they relate to ownership and legal status. Acknowledgements Acknowledgements The Inter-American Development Bank must be recognized for commissioning the original version of this paper entitled: Without the support provided by the Inter-American Development Bank this work simply would not have been possible.
Specific thanks are owed to Alvaro Rameriz, Division Deputy Chief and Jacqueline Bass, Senior Advisor for Micro and Small Enterprise, the Inter-American Development Bank, who provided the foresight and leadership to instigate this typology, labored over the cases, and tirelessly read and commented on the paper in its various incarnations.
I would like to thank and acknowledge the contributions of the following individuals who agreed to review and provide feedback on this paper. Each one is a respected leader and major contributor to the social enterprise and international economic development fields; their thoughts, ideas, words, and previous work laid the foundation for this piece.
Special recognition goes to Vincent Dawans from Virtue Ventures for his contributions to sections on impact measurements and graphical representations.
Finally, much gratitude is due to Laura Brown, faithful editor, who willingly took this paper in its original incarnation on her vacation. Inthe Social Entrepreneurship Program SEPwhich replaced the Small Projects Fund, was created to promote social equity and the economic development of poor and marginal groups.Nationally Accredited Continuing Education Courses for Psychologists, Social Workers, Counselors, and Marriage and Family Therapists.
In , an estimated million children — more than 20, a day — died. Poor nutrition plays a role in at least half of these deaths. Collect food outside your supermarket for a local food bank.
On teachers’ salaries, at least, the NCES data is data for WAGES only, not total compensation. Given their civil service protections, automatic, seniority based promotions, extremely generous benefits and pensions, a picture of flatlining wages is inaccurate.
International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications (IJERA) is an open access online peer reviewed international journal that publishes research. Start studying AP HG Ch.
9 study guide Development. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. Populations that do not receive the required dietary energy supply on a daily basis are found primarily in: Based on the concept of Wallerstein's world-systems analysis, what country best fits the.
They often don’t think of a child who lives in one of the most developed countries in the world, like the United States. Childhood hunger impacts one out of every five kids in the U.S.
That’s about million children who go hungry.